Artists not part of the Leiden group whose common subjects also were more intimate genre groups included Nicolaes MaesGerard ter Borch and Pieter de Hoochwhose interest in light in interior scenes was shared with Jan Vermeerlong a very obscure figure, but now the most highly regarded genre painter of all.
Landscapes were the easiest uncommissioned works to sell, and their painters were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to Samuel van Hoogstraten. Especially in the first half of the century, portraits were very formal and stiff in composition. Thomas de KeyserBartholomeus van der HelstFerdinand Bol and others, including many mentioned below as history or genre painters, did their best to enliven more conventional works.
Boards of trustees in their regentenstuk portraits preferred an image of austerity and humility, posing in dark clothing which by its refinement testified to their prominent standing in societyoften seated around a table, with solemn expressions on their faces.
Artemisia Gentileschi Judith and Holophernes. Portrait of a Prelate. In fact most of these had specific terms in Dutch, but there was no overall Dutch term equivalent to "genre painting" — until the late 18th century the English often called them "drolleries".
However this was the hardest to sell, as even Rembrandt found. Suzanna and the Elders. For all their uninhibited suggestiveness, genre painters rarely revealed more than a generous cleavage or stretch of thigh, usually when painting prostitutes or "Italian" peasants.
Museo Nacional del Prado. The actual identity of the model was not supposed to be important, but they might represent a historical figure and be in exotic or historic costume.
Another way of doing this was to paint in white over a black layer, and scratch off the white with the end of the brush to show the pattern.
Madonna feeding the Christ Child. Mechtelt van Lichtenberg toe Boecop Later in the century groups became livelier and colours brighter. Nicolaes TulpMauritshuisThe Hague.
Margareta de Heer before before Landscape with Birds 3 Paintings. Still Life with Cheese and Cherries. A crystal Dish with Peaches and Apples. Rembrandt's famous The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq better known as the Night Watchwas an ambitious and not entirely successful attempt to show a group in action, setting out for a patrol or parade, also innovative in avoiding the typical very wide format of such works.
Much attention was paid to fine details in clothing, and where applicable, to furniture and other signs of a person's position in society. Jan Lievens and Rembrandt, many of whose self-portraits are also tronies especially his etched oneswere among those who developed the genre.
A distinctive type of painting, combining elements of the portrait, history, and genre painting was the tronie. Attributed to Clara Peeters. A Portrait of an old Man. The Palatine Gallery of the Pitti Palace.
In fact working class men going about their jobs are notably absent from Dutch Golden Age art, with landscapes populated by travellers and idlers but rarely tillers of the soil.
The Apparition of Jesus to the Magdalene. Magdalena Pietersz active Market Scene. Compared to Baroque history painting from other countries, they shared the Dutch emphasis on realism, and narrative directness, and are sometimes known as the "Pre-Rembrandtists", as Rembrandt's early paintings were in this style.
Several new guilds were established in the period: Portrait of a Condottiere with a Dog. Most militia group portraits were commissioned in Haarlem and Amsterdamand were much more flamboyant and relaxed or even boisterous than other types of portraits, as well as much larger.
The Leiden school of fijnschilder "fine painters" were renowned for small and highly finished paintings, many of this type. Portrait of a Scholar.
Woman washing Dishes, seen from the Back. Flowers in a Glass Vase four Paintings. The classic moment for having a portrait painted was upon marriage, when the new husband and wife more often than not occupied separate frames in a pair of paintings.
Museo Civico Ala Ponzone. There was very little Dutch sculpture during the period; it is mostly found in tomb monuments and attached to public buildings, and small sculptures for houses are a noticeable gap, their place taken by silverware and ceramics.
The following is a list of outstanding female painters and some of their works, as can be found in the museums of Western Europe, the United States of America and Canada. The following is a list of outstanding female painters and some of their works, as can be found in the museums of Western Europe, the United States of America and Canada.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (–) for Dutch independence.
The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state. Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (–) for Dutch independence.
The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state.Oosterwyck vanitas